آخر تحديث - 20 ديسمبر 2020
In mid-March 1939, the Soviet Union, Great Britain and France, in an attempt to curb Hitler`s expansionism, began to exchange a flood of proposals and counter-plans for a possible political and military agreement.   Informal consultations began in April, but the main negotiations did not begin until May. Meanwhile, in early 1939, Germany had secretly suggested to Soviet diplomats that it could offer better terms for a political agreement than Britain and France.   The public part of the Moscow agreement was announced with great fanfare on August 25, 1939, the day Hitler would launch his “flash war” (rapid surprise attacks) eastward. Earlier, however, on the same day, Britain and France reacted, knowing that the Naziové agreement was still pending by formalizing their promise to Poland in a treaty that declared that anyone defending Poland would fight if attacked. Before the announcement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Western communists challenged the signing of such a treaty. Herbert Biberman, a future member of the Hollywood Ten, denounced the rumors as “fascist propaganda.” Earl Browder, the leader of the American Communist Party, said earl Browder was just as likely to be elected president of the Chamber of Commerce.  However, Gunther wrote that some knew that “communism and fascism were more closely allied than was usually understood,” and Ernst von Weizs-cker had declared on 16 August to Nevile Henderson that the Soviet Union would “participate in participation in Polish loot.”  In September 1939, the Communist International suspended all anti-Nazi and anti-fascist propaganda and declared that war in Europe was a matter of capitalist states attacking each other for imperialist purposes.  Western communists acted accordingly; Although they had previously supported collective security, they have now denounced Britain and France for going to war.  On 22 August 1939, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893-1946) flew from Berlin to Moscow. He soon found himself in the Kremlin, facing Stalin and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov (1890-1986), who had worked with von Ribbentrop to negotiate an agreement.
(The Soviet minister is also the name of the incendiary device known as the Molotov cocktail.) Ribbentrop made a proposal by Hitler for the two countries to commit to a 100-year non-aggression pact. Stalin replied that ten years would suffice. The proposal also provided that neither of the country-specific parties that attacked one of the two signatories would provide assistance. Finally, the proposal contained a secret protocol that defined the spheres of influence in Eastern Europe that both sides would accept after Hitler`s conquest of Poland. The Soviet Union acquired the eastern half of Poland, as well as Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia. Finally, on 26 June, four days after France launched an action for a ceasefire with the Third Reich, the Soviet Union issued an ultimatum demanding Bessarabia and unexpected Bucvine in northern Romania.  Two days later, the Romanians joined the Soviet demands and the Soviets occupied the territories.