آخر تحديث - 13 أبريل 2021
While THE GATT was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an intergovernmental organization with its own headquarters and staff, whose scope covers both traded goods and trade in the service sector and intellectual property rights. Although used for multilateral agreements, multilateral agreements have led to selective exchanges and fragmentation among members in several rounds of negotiations (particularly the Tokyo Round). WTO agreements are generally a multilateral mechanism for the settlement of GATT agreements.  One of GATT`s main achievements has been indiscriminate trade. Any GATT signatory should be treated like any other, known to be the nation`s most privileged principle and entered into the WTO. The practical result was that, once a country had negotiated a tariff reduction with some other countries (usually its major trading partners), this reduction would automatically apply to all GATT signatories. There were leakage clauses allowing countries to negotiate exemptions if their domestic producers were particularly harmed by tariff reductions. In 1947, the average level of tariffs for large GATT participants was about 22%.  As a result of the first rounds of negotiations, tariffs at the heart of the GATT of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia have been reduced relative to other contracting and non-GATT countries.  During the Kennedy Round (1962-67), the average level of tariffs for GATT participants was about 15%.
 After the Uruguay Round, tariffs were less than 5%.  The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization established on 22 July 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and launched on 27 December 1945, when 29 countries signed the IMF agreement. It originally had 45 members. The IMF`s stated objective was to stabilize exchange rates and support the reconstruction of the global payment system after World War II. Through a quota system, countries introduce money into a pool from which countries with payment imbalances can temporarily borrow funds. Through these and other activities, such as monitoring the economies and policies of its members, the IMF is working to improve the economies of its member countries.